Pobednik Monument

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Pobednik (English: The Victor) is a monument in the Upper Town of the Belgrade Fortress, built to commemorate Serbia‘s victory over Ottoman and Austro-Hungarian Empire during the Balkan Wars and the First World War. Erected in 1928, and standing at 14 metres (46 ft) high, it is one of the most famous works of Ivan Meštrović. It is also one of the most visited tourist attractions in Belgrade and the city’s most recognizable landmark.

It is a standing bronze male figure with a falcon in the left hand and a sword in the right, modelled by the sculptor Ivan Meštrović, set on a pedestal in the form of a Doric column on a tall cubic base, designed by the architect Petar Bajalović. The statue looks forward across the confluence of the Sava and the Danube, and over the vast Pannonian plain, towards the very distant Fruška Gora mountain, towards the (at the time), Austro-Hungarian empire, it is probably the most powerful, most popular visual symbol of Belgrade.

The simple design of the pedestal and its well-proportioned height made it possible to take in the monument as a whole rather than in detail, which resulted in the desired monumentality and the perception of the monument as a sign or a symbol. Over time the Victor has become one of the most salient symbols of Belgrade. Along with the Monument of Gratitude to France, it belongs to the few public monuments erected between the two world wars in Belgrade which pursued contemporary stylistic trends. The Victor Monument was designated as a cultural heritage property in 1992.

More information on this article:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pobednik

Avala Tower

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The Avala Tower (Serbian: Авалски торањ / Avalski toranj) is a 204.5 m (671 ft) tall telecommunications tower located on Mount Avala, in Belgrade. The original tower was finished in 1965, but was destroyed on 23 April 1999, during the NATO bombing of Yugoslavia. The tower’s reconstruction commenced on 21 December 2006 and it was officially opened on 21 April 2010. It is currently the tallest tower in the Balkans.

The tower was designed by architects Uglješa Bogdanović and Slobodan Janjić, and engineer Milan Krstić. Construction started on 14 October 1961 and was completed four years later, in 1965. The tower weighed 4,000 tonnes (3,900 long tons; 4,400 short tons). Between 102 m (335 ft) and 135 m (443 ft), there was an enclosed observation deck. It was the only tower in the world to have an equilateral triangle as its cross section, and one of very few towers not perched directly into the ground, but standing on its legs. The legs formed a tripod, the symbol of Serbian tripod chair. It is one of the small number of towers to be constructed in that manner.

The tower was surmounted by an antenna, which was at first used for black and white television transmission. In 1971 the antenna was replaced by a new one for color TV transmission.

From the height of 102 metres to a 135 metres there was an all glass area to which visitors could come via two quick lifts.

The project, which was of high risk, was finished without any worker injuries or deaths, which was unusual for a project of its size.

After completion, with the 202.87 m (666 ft) height it was the fifth tallest self-supporting construction in the world, after Empire State Building, La Tour Eiffel, Chrysler Building and Grande Dixence Dam.

The Avala Tower was destroyed on 29 April 1999 by NATO bombardment. Previously the power supply to the station was destroyed, but a senior military officer installed a backup generator. The intent of the bombing was to put Radio Television Serbia (RTS) permanently off the air for the duration of the war; however RTS was relayed on a network of local TV stations which relayed its programming throughout the whole of Serbia. The Avala Tower was a symbol of pride and a famous landmark, not only of Belgrade and Serbia, but of the former Yugoslavia too. The tower was one of the last buildings to be destroyed before the end of the NATO operation. A special bomb was used to destroy the tower. The blast was one of the loudest explosions heard throughout Belgrade during the NATO bombardment.

In 2004, Radio Television Serbia commenced a series of fund-raising events in order to collect money to construct the building once again at the same place it was destroyed. In 2005, clearing of the site where the tower was destroyed began and on 21 December 2006 the construction of a new Avala Tower commenced. An agreement regarding its construction was signed by Dušan Basara, director of the construction sector of the Ratko Mitrović Company — which was in charge of the construction of the tower — and general director of RTS, Aleksandar Tijanić. Many fund-raising events have been held for the collection of funds so a new tower can be constructed. One of the first was a match between Serbian grand slam-winning tennis players Ana Ivanovic and Novak Djokovic. All the proceeds went to the Avala Tower fund. Ceca Ražnatović (a Serbian folk singer) held a concert on 15 June 2006, with all the proceeds going to the Avala Tower fund. Radio Television Serbia ran commercials for donations to rebuild the tower. According to a December 2006 report, when it was announced that the construction of a new Avala Tower would commence that same month, over €1 million was collected through fund-raising and donations.

Initially, completion of the new tower was expected in August 2008, but construction works were severely delayed. The opening date was pushed back to 29 April 2009, the tenth anniversary of its destruction. Radio Television Serbia reported on 23 October 2009 that the tower had been completed.

More information on this article:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Avala_Tower

Đavolja Varoš

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Đavolja Varoš (Serbian: Ђавоља варош, meaning “Devil’s Town”) is a peculiar rock formation, located in south Serbia on the Radan Mountain on the territory of the village of Đake in the municipality Kuršumlija.

Đavolja Varoš features 202 exotic formations described as earth pyramids or “towers”, as the locals refer to them. They are 2 to 15 m (6 ft 7 in to 49 ft 3 in) tall and 4 to 6 m (13 to 20 ft) wide at the base. These formations were created by strong erosion of the soil that was scene of intense volcanic activity millions of years ago. Most of the towers have “caps” or “heads” of andesite, which protect them from further erosion. Volatile volcanic history left marks in the multicolored rocks in the towers hinterlands. However, Đavolja Varoš in its modern form is a relatively new feature. As the inhabitants of the surrounding region were cutting down the forests, they enabled for the precipitation to erode the rocks. The area beneath the towers is called The Hell gully (Paklena jaruga) and the surrounding terrain is a location of the mine shafts from the medieval Nemanjić Serbia.

A natural spring is located beneath the formations and has a high mineral concentration. There are two springs: Đavolja voda (Devil’s Water), with extremely acidic water (pH 1.5) and high mineral concentration (15 g/l of water), and Crveno vrelo (Red Well). The unusually pungent spring waters were examined for the first time in 1905 by Aleksandar Zega, founder of the Serbian Chemical Society.

More information on this article:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/%C4%90avolja_Varo%C5%A1

Pillars Of Creation

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Pillars of Creation is a photograph taken by the Hubble Space Telescope of elephant trunks of interstellar gas and dust in the Eagle Nebula, some 6,500-7,000 light years from Earth. They are so named because the gas and dust are in the process of creating new stars, while also being eroded by the light from nearby stars that have recently formed. Taken on April 1, 1995, it was named one of the top ten photographs from Hubble by Space.com.[3] The astronomers responsible for the photo were Jeff Hester and Paul Scowen from Arizona State University. In 2011, the region was re-photographed by ESA‘s Herschel Space Observatory.

The pillars are composed of cool molecular hydrogen and dust that are being eroded by photoevaporation from the ultraviolet light of relatively close and hot stars. The leftmost pillar is about four light years in length. The finger-like protrusions at the top of the clouds are larger than our solar system, and are made visible by the shadows of evaporating gaseous globules (EGGs), which shields the gas behind them from intense UV flux.[6] EGGs are themselves incubators of new stars. The stars then emerge from the EGGs, which then are evaporated.

More information on this article:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pillars_of_Creation

Golubac Fortress

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The Golubac Fortress (Serbian: Голубачки град or Golubački grad, Hungarian: Galambóc vára, Bulgarian: Гълъбец, Romanian: Cetatea Golubăț, Turkish: Güvercinlik Kalesi) was a medieval fortified town on the south side of the Danube River, 4 km downstream from the modern-day town of Golubac, Serbia. The fortress, which was most likely built during the 14th century, is split into three compounds which were built in stages. It has ten towers, most of which started square, and several of which received many-sided reinforcements with the advent of firearms.

Golubac Fortress has had a tumultuous history. Prior to its construction it was the site of a Roman settlement. During the Middle Ages, it became the object of many battles, especially between the Ottoman Empire and the Kingdom of Hungary. It changed hands repeatedly, passing between Turks, Bulgarians, Hungarians, Serbs, and Austrians, until 1867, when it was turned over to the Serbian Knez, Mihailo Obrenović III. Now, it is a popular tourist attraction in the region and a sightseeing point on Danube boat tours.

More information on this article:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Golubac_Fortress